3D Surveying of Churches with a Drone, Terrestrial Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning from LOGXON
During the 3D surveying of churches with a drone in combination with terrestrial laser scanning, we carry out contiguous and detailed condition scanning. During the survey, all inner rooms, the external area, the church spire, the churchyard or the entire complex around the church can be scanned and mapped in a 3D point cloud.
The two methods photogrammetry (photogrammetric scanning with a drone or also terrestrially) and 3D laser scanning enable the complete geometric surveying of difficult building complexes in the shortest possible time. When surveying a church, it is simultaneously visually documented with high-resolution images.
The 3D surveying of churches is a measurement that takes account of every deformity and stone. The survey is the basis for further processing, historical analysis, inspection by experts or also renovations.
Results from a 3D survey of churches with a drone and laser scanning
The result of a 3D survey of a church using a drone, laser scanner and terrestrial photogrammetry is a point cloud. Depending on the requirements, 2D as-built plans, sections, views and façade drawings can be created from the point cloud. Orthomosaic photos of conditions can also be derived from the scan data and high-resolution images in a wide variety of scales and resolutions for visual documentation, inspection and damage mapping. Furthermore, 3D CAD models and photorealistic 3D mesh models can also be created.
Accuracy and resolution of a 3D survey of churches with a drone and laser scanner
The accuracy at a single location differs from the accuracy over the entire object. The accuracy at a single location of the laser scanner is ± 2 mm. Below 10 m distance to the object, a relative accuracy of 1 mm can be achieved.
In the case of photogrammetric scanning with drones or terrestrial photogrammetry, accuracy depends on the ground resolution, which is determined by the sensor size of the camera, the lens and the distance to the object or the flying height. Accuracy is within a range of 1–2 times the ground resolution in an x/y direction. The deviation in height (z) is usually slightly higher (max. 3 times the GSD).
Ground control points are used for stabilising and referencing the photogrammetry. 3D laser scans can also be used for referencing. Photogrammetric image processing is then performed simultaneously with the recorded laser scans. Based on an accompanying survey of ground control points using a tachymeter, accuracies of ± 1 cm can be achieved on the entire object in this way.
Below an example of parameters using our 42-megapixel full-format camera of a drone with a 35-mm lens:
Ground resolution (GSD = Ground Sampling Distance) at a 10-m distance from the lens / flying height above the object: 0.15cm. This results in an accuracy of 0.15–0.3 cm when the ground control points are of a good quality.
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