Surveying of Historic Buildings, Industrial Buildings and Castles with 3D Scans from LOGXON
We use various measuring methods and sensors for the 3D surveying of historic buildings, industrial buildings and castles in order to perform 3D scans. Using calibrated camera systems, high-quality lenses and terrestrial laser scanners, we perform contiguous and detailed condition scanning. Condition scanning is indispensable as a precise basis for planning for planned reconstruction measures and renovation work in particular. For the surveying of historic buildings, all inner rooms, halls and cellars, as well as the outer façades or even the entire historic complex can be scanned and mapped in a 3D point cloud.
The two methods photogrammetry and 3D laser scanning enable the complete geometric surveying of difficult building complexes in the shortest possible time. When surveying a historic building, the entire object is simultaneously visually documented with high-resolution images.
The surveying of historic buildings using 3D scans is a measurement that takes account of every deformity. The survey and visual documentation are the basis for further processing, historical analysis, damage mapping, inspection by experts or renovation.
3D scans with a drone for the surveying of tall buildings, large areas and groups of historic buildings
In addition to terrestrial laser scanners, outdoors we mainly use our drones to survey tall buildings, large areas and groups of historical buildings photogrammetrically. When compared to all the conventional alternatives – such as manned aeroplanes, helicopters and inflexible elevating platforms – the use of our drones in the field of 3D scanning is in many ways more effective, cheaper and above all more environmentally friendly.
Results from a survey of historic buildings, industrial buildings and castles with 3D scans
The result of a 3D survey of a historic building with 3D scans is a point cloud. Depending on the requirements, 2D as-built plans, sections, views and façade drawings can be created from the point cloud. Orthomosaic photos of conditions can also be derived from the detailed 3D scan data and high-resolution images in a wide variety of scales and resolutions for visual documentation, inspection and damage mapping. Furthermore, 3D CAD models and photorealistic 3D mesh models can be created.
Accuracy and resolution of a survey of historic buildings with 3D scans
The accuracy at a single location differs from the accuracy over the entire object. The accuracy at a single location of the laser scanner is ± 2 mm. Below 10 m distance to the object, a relative accuracy of 1 mm can be achieved.
In the case of photogrammetric scanning with drones or terrestrial photogrammetry, accuracy depends on the ground resolution, which is determined by the sensor size of the camera, the lens and the distance to the object or the flying height. Accuracy is within a range of 1–2 times the ground resolution in an x/y direction. The deviation in height (z) is usually slightly higher (max. 3 times the ground resolution).
Close-range photogrammetry with a drone: (inner) train station entrance, Frankfurt am Main main train station. Ground resolution less than 1 mm.
We generally hand over the measurement results from 3D scans of historical buildings, industrial buildings and castles with georeferencing in the coordinate system required. Georeferencing is performed using available fixed points or ground control points, which are measured by us using a GPS or a tachymeter. The ground control points are also used for stabilising and referencing the photogrammetry. All 3D laser scans of the object can also be used for referencing. Photogrammetric image processing is then performed simultaneously with the recorded scans. Based on an accompanying survey of ground control points using a tachymeter, accuracies of ± 1 cm can be achieved for an entire historic object in this way.
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